Short-Term Density Forecasting of Low-Voltage Load using Bernstein-Polynomial Normalizing Flows

Abstract

The transition to a fully renewable energy grid requires better forecasting of demand at the low-voltage level to increase efficiency and ensure reliable control. However, high fluctuations and increasing electrification cause huge forecast variability, not reflected in traditional point estimates. Probabilistic load forecasts take future uncertainties into account and thus allow more informed decision-making for the planning and operation of low-carbon energy systems. We propose an approach for flexible conditional density forecasting of short-term load based on Bernstein polynomial normalizing flows, where a neural network controls the parameters of the flow. In an empirical study with 363 smart meter customers, our density predictions compare favorably against Gaussian and Gaussian mixture densities. Also, they outperform a non-parametric approach based on the pinball loss for 24h-ahead load forecasting for two different neural network architectures.

Publication
arXiv
Marcus Voss
Marcus Voss
Intelligence Architect and AI Expert, PhD Student

I’m an AI consultant at Birds on Mars and a PhD student at TU Berlin in AI applications in the smart grid.